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Re-Estimating the Abundance of a Recovering Polar Bear Subpopulation by Genetic Mark-Recapture in M’Clintock Channel, Nunavut, Canada

Nanuit (Ursus maritimus) munariyauyut tamainni Nunavunmi, Kaanatami, angunahuarniqmut munariniqmulu qiniqtut naunairiami angunahuarniq munariyauyuq ilitariyauyuqlu munariniqmut piyangit. Taimaa 10nik ukiunik, hilaup aadlangurninnga tamainni Ukiuqtaqtumi aadlanguqtitait nanuit nayugangit aadlatqiiktumik nampanik. Pihimagiami nakuuyumik nanuit amihunik ilagiyanganik avatinganik tuniyuqlu inuujjutikhangit Inungnut, nalunaqtunik naunaiyainiq munarininnganiklu piyait naunaiyariami amihunik qanurittaakhaanik taimaalu munarininngit piliqtait. Hamani uqaqtavut qanurittaakhaanik amihuuninnginnik naunaiyainiq nanuqnut nayugangit Ittuaqtuuq (MC) havaktait 2014-2016. Nutaat uuktuutingit katitiqtauyut aturhutik mikitqiamik-pittailiniq ihariagiyainnik niqinginnik piiyaqtauniq kapuqtauyut nutqaqtihimaittumik akhuraalukluuniit pilugit nanuit. Ihivriurutivut ilaliutihimayuq nampangit uumannga 2014-2016 niqinginnik piiqtauniq naunaiqtait piffaarhugit nanuit naunaiyainiq, tuqutihimaittumik piplugit nampangit katitiqtait uumani naunaiyainiq piffaarhugit naunaiyainiq 1998-2000, kikliqaqtumiklu angunahuarniq piffaarninnga nampangit tamainni uumani 1998-2016.
Qanurittaakhaanik umikhimayumik piyait piffaaqtait uuktuutigiplugu, iliuraqtuq uuminnga Nampanik ihivriuqniq tunngavinga ihuarhaqtauyuqlu nampangit inmikkuuqtunut huradjat (ukunatitut, >2 ukiunik), piyuq piqarninnganik itqurnarutauyuq uuminnga 716 (95pusantmik Itquumayuq Nutqarninnga [CRI] = 545 – 955) uumunnga 2014-2016, naunaiqtait tamna MC nanuit amihuuninngit angikliyuumiqtuq uumannga amihuuninnganik uumani 1998-2000 (325 [95pusantmik CRI = 220 – 484] uumani naunaiyaininngani; 284 [SE: ± 59.3] uumani Taylor aadlallu. [2006]). Tamarmik anguhalluk arnallatlu ilagiyanga uuminnga amihuuninngit angikliyuumiqtuq naunaiyaqtillugit (1998-2000 uumanilu 2014-2016), aadlatqiiktumik ikikliyuumiqtuq angunahuarniqmut akhuurniq ihuaqhaqhimayuqlu nayugangit qanurittaakhaanik. Atuqtugut qaffit inuuyut angikliyuumiqtut tuqutut uuktuutigiplugu taimaa nampangit piqalluanginmat uuktuutikhamut amihunik kikliqarninnga. Itqurnarninnga amihuuninnganik pipkaijjutauyukhaq qayagilugit taimaa naunaiqmata “amigaininnga” (ukunatitut, ilaliutikmata tamaita nanuit atuqtait MC munarininnga, ilangit nayuqpaktut aadlani amihuuninngit ukuatlu) ilaliutiniaruknaqhiuq nakuuyumik ihuittumik piyuq ulapiqutiyuq uuktuutimut maliktakhangit unalu nakuungittumik ihuittumik pipkaijjutauyuq aadlatqiininnganik pigaangamitkik. Tamainnit nanunnuangit aktikkulaangit uumunnga 2014-2016 ittuq 1.70 (SE = 0.09) unalu 1.61 (SE = 0.11) nanunnuangit-ukiungani unalu atauhiqmik ukiulik, inmikkut. Naunaiyarhimayuq qaffiuyut atauhiqmik ukiulik atauhiqmut arnallakmut mikhiyuq uumannga 0.39 (SE = 0.10) uumunnga 0.28 (SE = 0.06) tamarmiknit naunaiyaininnganik, kihimi MC nakuuyumik piyuq nanuit amihuuninngit humaangittuq mikhiyuq qun’ngiaqtauyuqlu tariup hikunga aadlangurniq. Kihimi, tuttumik nanunnuaqarninnganik nampangit, piliulimaittugut ihariagiyauyumik ihumagininngit. Nanuit timingit qanurittaakhaanik (ukunatitut, puvalaniq), naunaiyarhimayuq upin’ngakhami, angikliyuumiqtuq uumani 1998-2000 uumanilu 2014-2016. Itqurnarutauyut naunaittuq inuujjutingit nanuqnut ukiulgit 2mik avatqumayuqluunit 0.88 (SE = 0.02), taimaa pilimaittuq ihuittuq mikhiyuq tadjakaffukmut ingilrainnaqtullu nanuit naunaiyaininnganut kikliqaqtumiklu nampangit piqarninnga piyuq tikittunik nuutiqtirninngalu. Una naunaiqtauyuq angikliyuumiutinganik amihuuninnganit itqurnarninnga tamainni naunaiyaiyuq inuujjutingit nampangit angitqiyauyukhaq uumannga 0.88 pigiami angiyumik angikliyuumirniq. Taimaa naunaiyarmatku angayukhiuyut inuujjutingit aturhugu aadlangurninnga amihuuninnganik itqurnarninnga uumani 1998-2000 uumanilu 2014-2016, itqurnarutauyut nampavut uuminnga 0.93 pitquyait amihuuninnga angikliyuumiutinga nakuuyuq, piqarhuni angikliyuuminnga nampanga 2pusantmik. Tamainnit, naunaiqtavut aadjikutariyaa nunallaani ilihimaniq tamna MC amihuuninngit piffaaqtait amihumik angunahuarniq piyuq uumani 1979-1999 (angunahuarninnga 34 nanuqnik/atauhiqmi ukiumik). Avatininnganut, ihumagiyaqqut qun’ngiaqtauniq ihuarhiyut timinginnik akhuraaluklu amihuuninnga angikliyumiqtuq taimaa piyuq inikhanganik qangarnitamik ikikliyuumiqtuq tariup hikunga qanurittaakhaanik qanuraaluklu tuniyuq tadjakaffuk ikayuutauyuq uumunnga MC amihuuninngit pikmat uumannga tualihimayuq hikunga (ukunatitut, ikikliyuumiqtuq hilikninnga, amihunik ukiut hikunga) unalu angikliyuumiqtuq inuujjutinganik qanurittaakhaanik. Kihimi, hilaup aadlangurninnga hivulliutinga akuniraalukmik qayangnarutauyuq nanuqnut aullaqtirininnga uumannga MC amihuuninngit nakuungittumik ayurhautipkaiyuq hikuirninnganit, taimaatut ilangit aadlat nanuit amihuuninngit, tadja naluyait.

Itqurnarutiyuq piyuq amihuuninnganik kiklikhangit uumunnga MC amihuuninngit naunaiqtuq akhuurutauyuq taimaa mikkait uuktuutingit aktikkulaangit, piqalluanginmat piniaruknaqhiyuq piffaarumitkut tamna piyaraluangit nanuq, piqalluanginmallu ingilrarninnga naunaitkutingit pitquyauyuq naunaiyainiq uumani naunaiyaqtamiknik taimaa itqurnarninnga amihuuninnganik inuujjutingalu taimaa ihuittuq. Itqurnarutikput piyaa tuglianganik MC amihuuninngit naunaiqtauyuq uumani aadjikutaliurhimayuq, ihuarhaqhimayuq naunaiyaininnga piliurninnga talvuuna tuniyuq amihunik pivikhaqautikhaq ayuiriami tahapkunanit atuqtamiknik naunaiyaininngani nampanganiklu katitiqtut piplugu. Aadlanut huradjat amihuuninngit avatingaluuniit atuqtait aadjikutariikninnga uumunnga MC, katitiquyavut aadlanik nanuliurniqmut nampangit unalu auminganik uuktuqtut qitqani uumannga nutaamit naunaiyainiq aippaangalu iluittuq amihuuninngit naunaiyainiq (Nunavutimi, inniaqtuq 5-7 ukiunik maniqqamungaqtinnagu havaanga iniqtaukpat) angikliyuumirluguluuniit naunaiyaininnga qanuraaluktut piyakhaq (ukunatitut 4-5 ukiunik), angikliyuumiriami ilihimaninnga inuuyunik nampanginnik, unaluuniit ahinunngauyut, nanuliurniqlu. Unalu, ingilraninnga nampangit (saatalaitkut nipiliurniq tunigiamilu taiguqtanginnik) pitquyauyuq. Piqangitkumi saatalaitkut nipiliurniq tunigiamilu taiguqtanginnik nampangit nanuit ingilraninnginnik, pitquyavut pigumik ihivriurninnga nampanganik ihivriuriami himmautingit uumannga MC qanittullu amihuuninngit (ukunatitut, Aqqusiriaq, uumanilu Kangirłurulukmilu).

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