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Re-Estimating the Abundance of a Recovering Polar Bear Subpopulation by Genetic Mark-Recapture in M’Clintock Channel, Nunavut, Canada

ᓇᓄᐃᑦ (Ursus maritimus) ᐊᐅᓚᑕᐅᒪᑕ ᓄᓇᕗᓕᒫᒥ, ᑲᓇᑕᒥ, ᐊᖑᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᔾᔪᑎᒃᑯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᓯᒪᓇᓱᐊᕈᑎᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᑎᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᕈᓐᓇᖁᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᐅᓚᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᔪᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᓇᖁᓗᒋᑦ. ᐊᓂᒍᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᖁᓕᐅᕙᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓂ, ᓯᓚᐅᑉ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᓕᒫᕐᒥ ᐊᓯᕈᒃᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᖕᒪᑦ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᓇᔪᖅᐸᒃᑕᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᐅᖏᑦᑐᒥᒃ ᐊᒃᓱᐋᓗᕐᓂᖃᕐᓗᑎᒃ. ᐱᓯᒪᔭᐅᖏᓐᓇᖁᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖃᕐᕕᒋᔭᖏᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᒪᔫᖃᑎᒋᒡᕕᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᖑᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᓗᐊᖁᓇᒋᑦ ᐱᔭᐅᖃᑦᑕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓄᖕᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕐᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᒋᐊᖅᓯᓂᒧᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕈᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓱᖑᒪᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᓯᔾᔪᑕᐅᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᖓᓕᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᓕᕋᓗᐊᕐᒪᖔᑕᓗ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᓕᕿᐊᖑᔪᒪᔪᑦ ᓇᒪᓈᖅᑕᐅᓗᑎᒃ. ᑕᕝᕙᐅᑯᐊ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᓕᐊᕗᑦ ᓴᕿᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᓇᔪᖅᓯᔪᑦ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ 2014-2016−ᒥ. ᒫᓐᓇᓕᓴᐃᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᓯᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᑦ ᐱᔭᐅᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᐳᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᕿᒫᑎᑦᑎᓗᐊᕌᓗᖏᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐆᒪᔫᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑑᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᑲᐱᓯᔾᔪᑎᖃᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᐅᓚᔪᓐᓇᐃᓕᑎᑕᐅᖏᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᕝᕙᓗᓂᑦ ᐊᒃᑐᐊᔭᐅᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᖏᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ. ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᓯᓂᕗᑦ ᐃᓚᖃᒃᐳᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᑕᐅᕙᖓᑦ 2014 – 2016−ᒥᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑑᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᖕᒪᑕ−ᐱᔭᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕈᑎᑦ, ᐆᒪᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ−ᐱᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔪᑎᒃᓴᑦ ᓄᐊᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐅᑯᓇᓃᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᖕᒪᑕ−ᐱᔭᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕈᑎᑦ 1998-2000, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᒡᓕᓕᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᓇᓐᓄᒃᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᓂ ᑕᓱᖅᓯᔾᔪᑎ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔪᑎᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᓕᒫᖓᓂ 1998-2016.

ᓴᖅᑭᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᒪᑐᔭᐅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᐱᔭᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐ−ᐱᔭᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᖅᑐᓄᓪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᔾᔪᑕᐅᔪᖅ, ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᖕᒪᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᓕᐅᑦᑎᐊᕈᑎᑦ ᓴᓇᓯᒪᔾᔪᑎᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓈᒻᒪᒃᑎᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᓄ ᐃᒻᒥᑯᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐆᒪᔪᓄᑦ (ᑐᑭᓕᐅᑎᓗᒍ, >2 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᑦ), ᐃᒫᖑᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᓂᕋᐃᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒥᒐᖏᓐᓂᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᑕᐅᓂᖃᕐᓗᑎᒃ 716−ᖑᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ (95% ᐳᓴᓐᑎᑦ ᓱᓕᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᓗᓂ ᓇᓪᓕᐊᖑᓕᖔᕋᓱᐊᕐᓂᖓᓂ [CRI] = 545 – 955) ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖓᓂ 2014-2016, ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᕐᓗᓂ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᓇᓄᖏᑕ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᕈᕆᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᑕᒫᙵᑦ ᐊᒥᒐᖏᓐᓂᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᑕᐅᕙᓂ 1998-2000−ᒥ (325 [95% ᐳᓴᓐᑎᑦ ᓱᓕᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᓗᓂ ᓇᓪᓕᐊᖑᓕᖔᕋᓱᐊᕐᓂᖓᓂ [CRI] = 220-484] ᑕᒃᑯᓇᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕈᑎᓂ; 284 [SE: ± 59.3] ᑕᐃᓗᕐ ᐃᑦ ᐊᐅᓪ [2006]). ᑕᒪᒃᑭᒃ ᐊᖑᑎᑦ ᐊᕐᓇᓪᓗᐃᓪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᕈᒃᑲᓐᓂᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᑯᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ (1998-2000 ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 2014-2016), ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓕᔾᔪᑎᖃᒃᑐᒃᓴᐅᔪᖅ ᐊᑕᐅᑦᑎᒃᑰᕐᓗᒋᒃ ᖃᑦᓰᓐᓇᕈᕆᐊᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᓇᓐᓄᒃᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᒪᓕᒃᑕᐅᖁᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᓇᔪᖅᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᐱᐅᓂᖓ. ᐊᑐᓚᐅᕋᑦᑕ ᒪᑐᓯᒪᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᒧᑎ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᑦ ᓇᓗᓈᕿᓗᐊᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᓄᑦ. ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᔾᔪᑎᑦ ᐊᒥᖓᒋᓐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᑐᑭᓕᐅᖅᑕᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐅᔾᔨᖅᑐᖅᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᔾᔪᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᓴᕿᔮᖅᑎᑦᑎᒻᒪᑕ “ᐊᒥᓱᕐᔪᐊᕌᓗᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ” (ᑐᑭᓕᐅᑎᓗᒍ, ᐱᖃᓯᐅᔾᔨᖕᒪᑕ ᐃᓘᓐᓇᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᓇᓄᓕᒫᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐊᐅᓚᑕᐅᔪᒥ ᓇᔪᖅᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᒥ, ᐃᓚᖏᓪᓗ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᑲᐃᓐᓇᓱᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᐅᔪᓄᑦ) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᖃᓯᐅᔾᔨᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᓇᓚᐅᑦᑎᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓚᐃᓐᓈᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᔾᔪᑎᖃᕐᓗᓂ ᒪᓕᒃᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᖏᓐᓂᖓᓂᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᔾᔪᑎ ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᔾᔪᑎ ᐃᓚᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐱᐅᓈᖏᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓚᐃᓐᓈᕐᓂᖅ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑎᑕᐅᓗᓂ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᖏᓐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᔭᐅᓂᖏᑕ ᑕᐃᒫᖑᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕈᑎᖏᑕ. ᐃᓘᓐᓇᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᕐᓂᐊᖑᔪᑦ ᐊᑎᖅᑕᐃᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ 2014-2016 ᐃᒫᑎᒋᐅᓚᐅᖅᐳᑦ 1.70 (SE = 0.09) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 1.61 (SE = 0.11) ᐊᑎᖅᑕᕐᓄᑦ−ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᔾᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ, ᐃᒃᐱᒋᑦᑎᐊᕋᓱᐊᕐᓗᒋᑦ. ᓈᓴᐅᓯᕆᐊᖑᔪᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᑦᓯᐅᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᔾᔭᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᓂ ᐃᓐᓇᕐᓄᑦ ᐊᕐᓇᓪᓗᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᓄᕈᓐᓃᕆᐊᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᒪᓐᓇᓂᑦ 0.39 (SE = 0.10) ᑎᑭᓪᓗᒋᑦ 0.28 (SE = 0.06) ᑕᒪᒃᑭᖏᓐᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᔪᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓂᖏᓐᓂ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐊᓯᕈᒃᑎᑦᑎᖏᒻᒪᑦ ᕿᑐᙱᐅᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᓂᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᑕᒪᓐᓇᐅᒐᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᖃᑦᓰᓐᓇᕈᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᒋᐊᖅᑕᐅᓂᖓ ᐃᒪᕕᐅᑉ−ᓯᑯᖓᑕ ᐊᓯᕈᕐᓂᖓ. ᑕᐃᒪᐃᒃᑲᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᑕᒪᓐᓇᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᓇᓗᓈᕿᓗᐊᕐᓂᖓ ᕿᑐᙱᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᖅ, ᐊᔪᕋᑦᑕ ᑐᑭᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᓕᐅᕆᐊᒃᓴᖅ. ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᑎᒥᖏᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᓂᖏᑦ (ᑐᑭᓕᐅᑎᓗᒍ, ᖁᓂᓂᓪᓗᐊᑕᖓ), ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐅᐱᕐᖔᒃᑯᑦ, ᐊᒃᓲᓂᖅᓴᐅᕙᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑯᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ 1998-2000 ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 2014–2016. ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᔾᔪᑎᑦ ᐆᒪᓂᕆᓱᖏᓐᓂ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖃᓕᕐᓗᑎᒃ 2−ᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓐᓇᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᒫᖑᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ 0.88 (SE = 0.02), ᑕᒪᐃᒃᑲᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᑕᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦᑐᒃᓴᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᓚᐃᓐᓈᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᒃᐸᕆᐊᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑲᐃᓐᓇᑐᐃᓐᓇᕋᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓗᓂᑦ ᐅᑎᔾᔮᔪᓐᓃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓛᒃᑯᖓᔪᑦ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᑯᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᒡᓕᓕᓯᒪᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᑦ ᐊᑐᓐᓇᐅᔪᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᖕᓄᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᔪᒐᓪᓗᐊᑕᕆᓲᖏᓐᓂ. ᓇᓚᐅᑦᑎᓂᕋᐃᔾᔪᑕᐅᖕᒪᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐊᒥᒐᖏᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᓕᒫᖓᓂ ᐅᖃᐅᑕᐅᔪᖅ ᐆᒪᑯᑖᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᓄᑎᒋᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒃᓲᓂᖅᓴᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᕐᒪᑦ 0.88−ᒥᑦ ᑎᑭᐅᑎᔪᓐᓇᕋᔭᖅᐸᑦ ᑕᐃᒫᑎᒋᐊᓘᒃ ᐊᒥᓱᕈᓂᖏᓄᑦ. ᓈᓴᐅᓯᕆᔾᔪᑎᖃᓕᕌᖓᑦᑕ ᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦ ᐆᒪᑯᑖᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᑕ ᐊᓯᕈᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᒥᒐᖏᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᑕᐅᔪᑎᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᑯᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂ 1998-2000 ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 2014-2016, ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᔾᔪᑎᑦᑕ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᕋᐃᔾᔪᑎᖃᕐᒪᑕ 0.93 ᐃᒫᖑᓂᕋᐃᖕᒪᑕ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑕ ᐊᒥᓱᕈᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐱᐅᓈᕐᓂᕋᒃᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ, ᐊᒥᓱᕈᕐᓂᖃᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᓕᖕᒥᑦ 2% ᐳᓴᓐᑎᓂᒃ. ᐃᓘᓐᓇᓕᒫᖏᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᔭᑦᑕ ᐊᔾᔨᖃᓪᓗᐊᓕᖅᓯᒪᖕᒪᑕ ᓄᓇᓕᖕᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑐᓐᓃᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᓇᓐᓄᒃᑕᐅᓗᐊᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᑐᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ 1979-1999-ᒥ (ᐃᒪᓐᓇᑎᒋᐅᒐᔪᒡᓗᑎᒃ ᓇᓐᓄᒃᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ 34 ᓇᓄᐃᑦ/ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒥ). ᓄᓇᒥᐅᑕᓕᕆᓗᓂ, ᑲᖐᓱᒃᑲᑦᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐱᐅᓯᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᑎᑦ ᑎᒥᖏᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒃᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐊᒥᓱᕈᕐᓂᖏᑕ ᐱᕈᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐱᕕᒃᓴᖃᕐᓂᑦ ᑐᕌᖓᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᓂᖃᕐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᕕᖃᓗᐊᕈᓐᓃᕐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐃᒪᕕᐅᑉ−ᓯᑯᖓᓂ ᑕᐃᒫᖑᒃᐸᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑦ ᕿᓚᒥᐋᓗᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᕈᑎᒃᓴᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑎᑕᐅᓗᓂ ᓵᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᓯᑰᑉ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᖓᓂᖓᑕ (ᑐᑭᓕᐅᑎᓗᒍ, ᓵᒡᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐃᔾᔪᓂᖓᑕ, ᓯᑯᑐᖃᓗᒃ) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒃᓲᓂᖅᓵᓕᕐᓂᖓ ᐅᒪᔪᑦ ᕿᑐᙱᐅᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᑦ. ᑕᐃᒪᐃᒃᑲᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᓯᓚᐅᑉ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓ ᐱᓪᓗᐊᑕᐅᖕᒪᑦ ᐊᑯᓂ−ᑕᐅᕗᖓᑐᖃᒃ ᓯᕘᕋᓇᖅᑎᑦᑎᔪᖅ ᓇᓄᕐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᒋᐊᕐᕕᒋᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᓕᕐᓗᓂᐅᒃ ᐅᖓᑕᓄᑦ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᐱᐅᓈᖏᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒃᑐᖅᑕᐅᓂᖃᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᓕᕐᒪᑕ ᓯᑯᖃᕈᓐᓃᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅᐸᑦ, ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓇᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᐊᓯᖏᑎᑐᑦ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑕ, ᒫᓐᓇ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔭᐅᖏᒪᑕ.

ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᓂᖅ ᐅᓄᖅᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᓕᕆᓂᖅ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᕙᓪᓕᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᒥ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᓇᓱᐊ]ᒡᒐᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᒥᑭᔪᐋᓗᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᒐᒃᓴᐃᑦ ᐊᖏᓂᖏᑦ, ᐱᔭᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐱᒃᑲᓐᓂᖅᑕᐅᒐᔭᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᑖᓐᓇᑦᑕᐃᓐᓇᐅᑉ ᓇᓄᑉ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᑕᖃᖏᓐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᖕᓄᐊᕐᓂᖏᑕ ᑐᓴᐅᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᐃᑦ ᓄᖃᒃᑎᑦᑎᓱᖑᒪᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᑕᑦᓱᒪᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥ ᓲᕐᓗ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᔾᔪᑎᑦ ᐊᒥᒐᖏᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐆᒪᑯᑖᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᒫᐸᓗᓪᓚᕆᐅᖕᒪᑕ ᓇᓗᓇᖏᑦᑎᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓚᐃᓐᓈᕐᓂᖏᑦ. ᒥᒃᓴᐅᓴᒃᓯᓂᕆᔭᕗᑦ ᑭᒡᒐᖅᑐᐃᖕᒪᑕ ᐊᐃᑉᐹᓂᑐᐊᖅ ᐱᕕᖃᕐᓂᕐᒥ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᒥ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᓈᓴᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓕᖅᑭᒍᓐᓇᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ, ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕐᓂᐅᑉ ᓴᓇᓯᒪᓂᖓ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᕕᒃᓴᐅᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓕᕝᕕᒃᓴᐅᓂᖓᓂᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓂᖓ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓯᒪᔪᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔪᑎᒃᓴᐃᑦ ᓄᐊᑕᓯᒪᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᔾᔪᓯᐅᓲᓂᑦ. ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓗᓂᑦ ᐆᒪᔫᖃᑎᒋᒡᕕᐅᔪᓂ ᐱᖃᖃᑎᖃᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᓪᓗᐊᐸᓗᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC), ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖁᔨᕗᒍᑦ ᓄᐊᑦᑎᖁᔨᓪᓗᑕ ᐃᓚᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᕿᑐᙱᐅᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐆᒪᔫᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᑎᑭᐅᒪᐸᓗᒡᓗᑎᒃ ᕿᑎᓪᓗᐊᐸᓗᐊᓄᑦ ᐊᑯᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᒫᓐᓇᕋᑕᖅ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᖑᓪᓕᕐᒥ ᑕᒪᐃᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᓯᔪᖃᓕᕐᓂᖅᐸᑦ (ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᔪᓂ, ᐃᒫᖑᒐᔭᖅᐳᑦ 5-7 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓂ ᓯᕗᓂᖓᒍ−ᑕᖅᑳᓂ ᐃᖃᓇᐃᔭᖑᒐᔭᑐᓂ ᐱᔭᕇᒃᓯᔪᖃᕋᓱᐊᕐᓂᖓᓂ) ᐅᕝᕙᓗᓂᑦ ᐊᑯᓂᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᒋᐊᕐᓗᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᕐᕕᐅᓱᑦ ᐊᑯᓂᐅᓂᕆᓱᖓ (ᑐᑭᓕᐅᑎᓗᒍ 4-5 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓄᑦ), ᐊᒃᓲᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑎᒋᐊᕐᓗᒋᑦ ᖁᓚᕐᓇᖏᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐆᒪᑯᑖᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᓄᑎᒋᐅᓂᖏᑦ, ᐊᓯᐊᓄᐊᑐᐃᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᑕ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᑐᖕᐅᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᑕ. ᓱᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᖅ, ᓇᓕᐊᖕᓄᐊᕐᓂᖏᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᖏᑦ (ᖃᖓᑦᑕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᑎᑦ) ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖁᔭᐅᕗᑦ. ᐱᑕᖃᒃᑎᓐᓇᒍ ᖃᖓᑦᑕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᑎᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᖕᓄᐊᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ, ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖁᔨᕗᒍᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᓕᐅᕐᓂᖅ ᖃᐅᔨᓇᓱᐊᖅᑕᐅᖁᓗᒍ ᑕᐅᖅᓯᕐᓃᑦ ᐅᑯᓇᓂ ᐃᑦᑐᐊᖅᑑᑦ (MC) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᓂᒋᔮᓂᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᖏᑦ (ᑐᑭᓕᐅᑎᓗᒍ, ᐸᓐᓂᖅᑐᑉ ᑲᖏᖅᖢᐊᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᑭᕋᓴᐅᑉ ᐃᒪᖓᓂ).

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